Porcelain

Porcelain:

Porcelain is made by heating ceramic materials that contain kaolin to a temperature of 1200 and 1400 °C. All porcelain contains the clay mineral kaolin, and kaolin contains metals like alkali and aluminum.

Porcelains have a paste-like quality and the texture is elastic. It has a completely different feel to other clays when you work with it.

The name of porcelain in Europe has come from the old Italian name porcellana that was cowrie shell because it resembles the surface of the shell.

 

When porcelain is fired, it develops a glass-like appearance-- a prized quality, along with low permeability, strength, and hardness which drove insatiable international demand starting as early as the seventeenth century.

What we think of as porcelain today-- a vitreous, white-bodied, thin, and colorfully glazed or painted ceramic -- is a Western definition.

The Chinese categorizes ceramics into 'high-fired' and 'low-fired'.

This brings us to the predecessors of porcelain.

History and development:

The first evidence of porcelain can be traced 2,000 years back to the Eastern Han Dynasty. At the time of the Eastern Han dynasty (AD 25–220), the Chinese developed a glossy ceramic which they called high-fired ware. These are the predecessors of modern porcelain.

The popular areas of porcelain production were Jiangxi province because that province has a rich supply of kaolin.

By the time of the Tang Dynasty (618 - 907 CE), the development of ceramics technology-- in both the making of the form and the glazing and decorating-- reached an important milestone.

As Buddhism spread and became prevalent in China, tea drinking took off as a cultural institution as it was a favorite drink of monks-- tea aided in staying awake during hours of meditation. 

To enhance the experience of tea drinking, a porcelain-like type of light green ceramics called celadon was lauded in the first book ever written on tea. This further crystalized the beauty and demand for porcelain both domestically and abroad as international trade by the maritime trade routes was bringing this new and exciting product into markets abroad.

During the Tang Dynasty was when 'foreigners' first got a taste for porcelain-- or more accurately proto-porcelain. 

Ceramics slowly developed in China over thousands of years. Porcelain was a natural result of continuous development as the raw material was available and its use understood early on.

The sudden influx of a large volume of porcelain into Europe in the seventeenth century, sparked by the Santa Catarina Incident, raised its profile and the awareness of its profit potential. This drove the European race to crack the mystery of porcelain making.

The ‘secret’ of porcelain:

The secret of porcelain is... kaolin.

This was the secret ingredient that the Europeans scratched their heads over for a couple of centuries. The first European manufacturer to successfully produce porcelain was Meissen in 1710.

 

Cover photo: Ming Dynasty. Fishes in the Imperial Pond – An Exceptional Xuande Bowl. Sotheby's 2017. 

 

 

Simplified Chinese:

: 瓷是通过将含有高岭土的陶瓷材料加热到1200和1400°C的温度制成的。所有瓷器都包含粘土矿物高岭土,而高岭土则包含碱金属和铝等金属。 瓷质呈糊状,质地柔软。当您使用它时,它的感觉与其他粘土完全不同。 欧洲瓷器的名称来自古老的意大利名称 porcellana,它是贝壳状外壳,因为它类似于外壳的表面。   烧制瓷器时,它会呈现出类似玻璃的外观-优质的品质,低渗透性,强度和硬度,早在17世纪就开始推动国际需求。

我们今天所称的瓷器-一种玻璃体,白坯体,稀薄的,彩色釉面或彩绘陶瓷-是西方的定义。 中国人将陶瓷分为“高烧”和“低烧”。 这把我们带到了瓷器的前身。 历史与发展: 瓷器的第一个证据可以追溯到东汉2000年。东汉时期(公元25-220年),中国人开发了一种有光泽的陶瓷,他们称之为高烧瓷器。这些是现代瓷器的前身。 瓷器生产的热门地区是江西省,因为该省的高岭土供应丰富。 到唐朝时期(公元618年至907年),陶瓷技术的发展-无论是形式的制作还是上釉和装饰-都达到了重要的里程碑。 随着佛教的传播和在中国的盛行,饮茶开始成为一种文化机构,因为它是僧侣们最喜欢的饮料-茶有助于冥想时保持清醒。 为了增加喝茶的体验,有史以来第一本关于茶的书中称赞了一种类似瓷器的浅绿色陶瓷,称为青瓷。随着海上贸易路线的国际贸易将这种新颖而令人兴奋的产品带入国外市场,这进一步明确了国内外对瓷器的美感和需求。 在唐朝时期,“外国人”第一次尝到瓷器的味道,或更准确地说是原始瓷器。 陶瓷在中国发展了数千年。瓷是不断发展的自然结果,因为该原料已经可以买到,而且其用途也很早就得到了理解。 圣卡塔琳娜州事件引起的十七世纪大量瓷器突然涌入欧洲,这提高了它的知名度和对潜在利润的认识。这驱使欧洲人打破了瓷器制造的奥秘。 瓷器的“秘密”: 瓷器的秘密是……高岭土。 第一家成功生产瓷器的欧洲制造商是1710年的迈森。

Traditional Chinese:

瓷是通過將含有高嶺土的陶瓷材料加熱到1200和1400°C的溫度製成的。所有瓷器都包含粘土礦物高嶺土,而高嶺土則包含鹼金屬和鋁等金屬。 瓷質呈糊狀,質地柔軟。當您使用它時,它的感覺與其他粘土完全不同。 歐洲瓷器的名稱來自古老的意大利名稱 porcellana,它是貝殼狀外殼,因為它類似於外殼的表面。   燒製瓷器時,它會呈現出類似玻璃的外觀-優質的品質,低滲透性,強度和硬度,早在17世紀就開始推動國際需求。 我們今天所稱的瓷器-一種玻璃體,白坯體,稀薄的,彩色釉面或彩繪陶瓷-是西方的定義。 中國人將陶瓷分為“高燒”和“低燒”。 這把我們帶到了瓷器的前身。

歷史與發展: 瓷器的第一個證據可以追溯到東漢2000年。東漢時期(公元25-220年),中國人開發了一種有光澤的陶瓷,他們稱之為高燒瓷器。這些是現代瓷器的前身。 瓷器生產的熱門地區是江西省,因為該省的高嶺土供應豐富。 到唐朝時期(公元618年至907年),陶瓷技術的發展-無論是形式的製作還是上釉和裝飾-都達到了重要的里程碑。 隨著佛教的傳播和在中國的盛行,飲茶開始成為一種文化機構,因為它是僧侶們最喜歡的飲料-茶有助於冥想時保持清醒。 為了增加喝茶的體驗,有史以來第一本關於茶的書中稱讚了一種類似瓷器的淺綠色陶瓷,稱為青瓷。隨著海上貿易路線的國際貿易將這種新穎而令人興奮的產品帶入國外市場,這進一步明確了國內外對瓷器的美感和需求。 在唐朝時期,“外國人”第一次嚐到瓷器的味道,或更準確地說是原始瓷器。 陶瓷在中國發展了數千年。瓷是不斷發展的自然結果,因為該原料已經可以買到,而且其用途也很早就得到了理解。

聖卡塔琳娜州事件引起的十七世紀大量瓷器突然湧入歐洲,這提高了它的知名度和對潛在利潤的認識。這驅使歐洲人打破了瓷器製造的奧秘。 瓷器的“秘密”: 瓷器的秘密是……高嶺土。 第一家成功生產瓷器的歐洲製造商是1710年的邁森